Observing Wild Banggai Cardinalfish in Banggai Islands!

July 3, 2012 in Project Updates, Slideshow, The Expedition

A Banggai cardinalfish observed in shallow water by the Banggai Rescue International Science Team off Banggai Island

A Banggai cardinalfish observed in shallow water by the Banggai Rescue International Science Team off Banggai Island

The KM. Valentine 2, a presumably seaworthy ferry with a perceptible list softened somewhat by a cheery complement of passengers and crew, slipped its berth amid the rush and bustle of Luwuk Harbour at just after 9 pm. Bound for Salakan, the capital of the Banggai Islands, the ferry’s three decks are abuzz with activity. Banggai Rescue’s international expeditionary team gathers at the stern beneath an inky black sky punctuated by a swath of bright stars. Only one member of the team, Yunaldi Yahya, M.Sc., had spent time previously in the Banggai Archipelago, so the rest of us are a bit like kids on Christmas Eve.

After so much time dedicated to studying and working with the Banggai cardinalfish, it is hard to believe it is nearly here—the moment we will see the fish in its namesake isles.

The Banggai Islands, a vestigial set of microcontinental plates severed from the northern extent of New Guinea, collided with Sulawesi sometime in the Late Miocene…or so we’ve read. This geologic fender-bender created a deep ocean trench between mainland Sulawesi and the Banggai Islands, and this deepwater is thought to be one of the barriers that has contained the Banggai cardinalfish within the Banggai archipelago. For most of the Team, crossing this trench is significant, for it represents a concrete demarcation between the wild Banggais we had already observed outside the species’ endemic range and the ones we will soon be seeing living within their native habitat.

Arriving in Salakan a little after one a.m., the Team, bleary-eyed and luggage-laden, slouched down dirt streets in a sleepy haze to a nearby hotel for a few hours of sleep before meeting up with our contacts from Fisheries in the morning. Thanks to the work and relationships established through our host organization—Yayasan Alam Indonesia Lestari (LINI)—we have a local Fisheries’ speedboat at our disposal throughout our stay in the Banggai Islands, making it possible to cover a large portion of the archipelago in a compressed timeframe.

While no doubt tired after the long trip from Bali to Sulawesi and eventually onward to the Banggai Islands, it’s no problem getting out of bed at first light. We are finally here—in the Banggai Islands. Re-tracing our steps back to Salakan’s small harbour, we eagerly boarded a remarkably comfortable and fast boat for the trip around the northern extent of the island of Peleng to the village of Bone Baru on Banggai Island. Bone Baru has become the de facto epicenter of the legal Banggai cardinalfish fishery, although, as we have previously reported and will discuss at length in the book, the majority of the actual fishery remains illegal.

U.S.-based scientists and Banggai Rescue International Science Team members Roy Yanong, V.M.D., Tom Waltzek, VMD, Ph.D. and Matthew L. Wittenrich, Ph.D. arrive in Bone Baru ready to dive in (literally)

U.S.-based scientists and Banggai Rescue International Science Team members Roy Yanong, V.M.D., Tom Waltzek, VMD, Ph.D. and Matthew L. Wittenrich, Ph.D. arrive in Bone Baru ready to dive in (literally)

Making fast to the long pier extending from the village’s main street, we disembark and made our way into town. Invited to join some of the locals for decadently sweet hot coffee and the always amusingly awkward conversation resulting from loose translations, gesticulations and plenty of laughter, we immediately fall in love with Bone Baru and its residents whose kindness and generosity appears to know no bounds. This will be a very good base of operations for the Banggai Rescue international science team while in the Banggai Islands.

As charmed as we are with the village, and as much as we are enjoying getting to know its residents, we’d be lying if we didn’t acknowledge our burning desire to get in the water, where we are confident we will come face-to-face in short order with the objects of our study. Happy to oblige, a few local fishers accommodate our request, and soon we are donning masks, snorkels and fins and heading out over the shallow grass flats and sandy bottom of Bone Baru’s shallow bay.

Within moments, the first populations of Banggai cardinalfish come into view. Hosting around coral colonies and anemones living within the grass beds, it is difficult to move on from one grouping to the next. The groups themselves are not terribly large, but each provides an opportunity to assess, observe and simply be enchanted by the fish’s distinctive (and, anthropogenically-speaking, “cute”) pulsing movements closely choreographed with a persistent gentle swell and the undulations of the long blades of seagrasses against a kaleidoscopic backdrop of shoals of small fishes surging through the sun-slivered shallows.

Bone Baru has become the de facto epicenter of the Banggai Cardinalfish fishery and is the field headquarters of the Banggai Rescue International Science Team while in the Banggai Archipelago

Bone Baru has become the de facto epicenter of the Banggai Cardinalfish fishery and is the field headquarters of the Banggai Rescue International Science Team while in the Banggai Archipelago

As mesmerized as we are, the need to return to work soon gets the best of us. A couple local fishers are kind enough to show us the various collection techniques they have traditionally used to fish for Banggais. For anyone familiar with the species and its behavior, it will not come as a surprise to hear us report on how easy it is to collect very large numbers of this fish in extremely short order. Of course this is one of the primary concerns about the fishery and its sustainability. While there is a proposed quota of 15,000 Banggai cardinalfish leaving the Banggai Islands through the Fish Quarantine and Inspection office per month, we know from our previous interviews with exporters and middlemen in both Bali and Java that the actual numbers are far larger.

Still, we are encouraged to learn from the fishers in Bone Baru that there have been changes to the fishery that are moving it toward greater sustainability. The question, of course, is are these changes significant enough and happening quickly enough to positively impact the endemic population.

We are very much looking forward to the upcoming days of observing and sampling Banggai cardinalfish populations from across the species’ endemic range. Of course it will be important to see if we can identify the Banggai cardinalfish iridovirus (BCIV) in wild populations within the Banggai Islands, but it will also be noteworthy to hear anecdotal reports from a wide variety of fishers about the fishery. Relying in part on team member Yunaldi Yahya’s experience mapping Banggai cardinalfish distribution and densities throughout the islands, we will hopefully have a rare, first-hand look at places where the species is doing better and, unfortunately, places where local extirpation has occurred.

Stay tuned for more information from the Team, and thanks again for your invaluable support of this important project!

 

Banggai Rescue Update from Indonesia!

June 18, 2012 in Project Updates, Slideshow, The Expedition

Banggai Rescue Team and more, on location in Indonesia - photo by Ret Talbot

Banggai Rescue Team and more, on location in Indonesia - photo by Ret Talbot

Banggai Rescue is now in full swing, and we’re excited to share our adventures and investigations with you! As you know, Matthew Pedersen is hard at work in the fish room in Minnesota, Karen Talbot is working on scientific illustrations in California, the U.S.-based scientific team is now on the ground and collaborating with their Indonesian counterparts in Bali, and Jame Lawrence, in Vermont, is keeping us all moving in the right direction toward our publication deadline. We have already learned so much about the species, the culturing of the species, the trade in the species, and the socio-economic and environmental impacts of that trade, and yet it seems like every time we discover something new (or confirm something we have heard anecdotally), a whole new string of questions arise. While this could seem daunting, if not downright depressing, we on the Banggai Rescue team have embraced the conundrum of the Banggai Cardinalfish with enthusiasm, intellectual curiosity and plain old excitement!

The team in Indonesia is learning that, as expected, there are more unknowns about the Banggai cardinalfish than knowns. Sure, we know it is a beguiling fish with a set of fascinating biological characteristics. We believe it is a species endemic to a very limited area (the Banggai Archipelago to the east of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia) but introduced populations are on the rise. We know that since 2003-04, there has been a sharp increase in mortality of Banggai cardinalfish in public aquaria, aquaculture facilities and in the marine ornamental trade the world over. We know much of this mortality is directly related to a relatively indiscriminate and alarming virus with repercussions that extend far beyond marine ornamentals with potential impacts to food and recreational fisheries.

But where is the virus originating? How can healthy Banggai cardinalfish broodstock be be reliably obtained for home and commercial aquaculture and the marine aquarium trade? Is the virus a threat to wild populations? What is the real impact of the trade on endemic populations, host ecosystems, and local fishers and fisher communities? What are the potential impacts of what we are learning on Indonesia’s marine aquarium trade, and how is the Banggai cardinalfish emblematic of trade-wide issues that require greater transparency and wider discussion? These questions are ones that keep team members up late into the night discussing, debating and hypothesising, and with so many unique backgrounds and skill sets in play, these discussions are yielding truly exciting, interdisciplinary and novel approaches to the larger discussion about the Banggai cardinalfish.

In terms of nuts and bolts, the U.S.-based scientists arrived in Indonesia on Friday and Saturday, making the Indonesian expeditionary team complete. After meeting with Banggai Rescue’s in-country sponsor, Gayatri Reksodihardjo Lilley of Yayasan Alam Indonesia Lestari (Indonesian Nature Foundation or LINI) on Saturday morning, we headed to West Bali and then Java and the town of Banyuwangi on Selat Bali (Bali Straits), where several marine aquarium trade export facilities deal regularly with Banggai cardinalfish and where there are reports of introduced Banggai cardinalfish populations living in the wild. On Monday morning, we were hosted by the Gondol Research Institute for Mariculture in North Bali (GRIM), where one of the Indonesian scientists who will be working closely with the U.S.-based scientists in the Banggai Islands is based. The entire team was very impressed with the facility and the scientists who work there (more to come on our visit), and we are looking forwar d to collaborating fully with them. On Tuesday, the U.S.-based scientists, based on information provided by our Indonesian counterparts, set out to observe more introduced populations in Bali before briefly returning to the south and tomorrow’s flight to the Banggai Islands.

We will try to post another update before leaving for the Banggai Archipelago, but from here on out, Internet connection may be spotty at best. Rest assured we will be documenting all our activities, and we will update you when we are able. Thank you again for your interest and support of this important project. While we may be a small group made up of passionate scientists, fish breeders, aquarists, a journalist, an artist, and a publisher, we very much feel as if you all our part of the Team! Stay tuned…

Don’t forget to “like” the Banggai Rescue Facebook Page for more updates and photos from Indonesia.